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agumon9

"sc_signal<T> cannot have more than one driver" error

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Hi all!

 

I tried to test my environment with one of the examples I found on a website for SystemC (this one). Here is the code of the example:

#include "scv.h"

const unsigned ram_size = 256;

class rw_task_if : virtual public sc_interface {
public:
   typedef sc_uint<8> addr_t;
   typedef sc_uint<8> data_t;
   struct write_t {
     addr_t addr;
     data_t data;
   };

   virtual data_t read(const addr_t*) = 0;
   virtual void write(const write_t*) = 0;
};

SCV_EXTENSIONS(rw_task_if::write_t) {
public:
   scv_extensions<rw_task_if::addr_t> addr;
   scv_extensions<rw_task_if::data_t> data;
   SCV_EXTENSIONS_CTOR(rw_task_if::write_t) {
     SCV_FIELD(addr);
     SCV_FIELD(data);
   }
};

class pipelined_bus_ports : public sc_module {
public:
   sc_in< bool > clk;
   sc_inout< bool > rw;
   sc_inout< bool > addr_req;
   sc_inout< bool > addr_ack;
   sc_inout< sc_uint<8> > bus_addr;
   sc_inout< bool > data_rdy;
   sc_inout< sc_uint<8> > bus_data;

   SC_CTOR(pipelined_bus_ports)
     : clk("clk"), rw("rw"),
       addr_req("addr_req"),
       addr_ack("addr_ack"), bus_addr("bus_addr"),
       data_rdy("data_rdy"), bus_data("bus_data") {}
};

class rw_pipelined_transactor
   : public rw_task_if,
     public pipelined_bus_ports {

   sc_mutex addr_phase;
   sc_mutex data_phase;

   scv_tr_stream pipelined_stream;
   scv_tr_stream addr_stream;
   scv_tr_stream data_stream;
   scv_tr_generator<sc_uint<8>, sc_uint<8> > read_gen;
   scv_tr_generator<sc_uint<8>, sc_uint<8> > write_gen;
   scv_tr_generator<sc_uint<8> > addr_gen;
   scv_tr_generator<sc_uint<8> > data_gen;

public:
   rw_pipelined_transactor(sc_module_name nm) :  
       pipelined_bus_ports(nm),
       addr_phase("addr_phase"),
       data_phase("data_phase"),
       pipelined_stream("pipelined_stream", "transactor"),
       addr_stream("addr_stream", "transactor"),
       data_stream("data_stream", "transactor"),
       read_gen("read",pipelined_stream,"addr","data"),
       write_gen("write",pipelined_stream,"addr","data"),
       addr_gen("addr",addr_stream,"addr"),
       data_gen("data",data_stream,"data")
   {}
   virtual data_t read(const addr_t* p_addr);
   virtual void write(const write_t * req);
};

rw_task_if::data_t rw_pipelined_transactor::read(const rw_task_if::addr_t* 
addr) {
   addr_phase.lock();
   scv_tr_handle h = read_gen.begin_transaction(*addr);

   scv_tr_handle h1 = addr_gen.begin_transaction(*addr,"addr_phase",h);
   wait(clk->posedge_event());
   bus_addr = *addr;
   addr_req = 1;
   wait(addr_ack->posedge_event());
   wait(clk->negedge_event());
   addr_req = 0;
   wait(addr_ack->negedge_event());
   addr_gen.end_transaction(h1);
   addr_phase.unlock();

   data_phase.lock();
   scv_tr_handle h2 = data_gen.begin_transaction("data_phase",h);
   wait(data_rdy->posedge_event());
   data_t data = bus_data.read();
   wait(data_rdy->negedge_event());
   data_gen.end_transaction(h2);
   read_gen.end_transaction(h,data);
   data_phase.unlock();

   return data;
}

void rw_pipelined_transactor::write(const write_t * req) {
   scv_tr_handle h = write_gen.begin_transaction(req->addr);
   // ...
   write_gen.end_transaction(h,req->data);
}

class test : public sc_module {
public:
   sc_port< rw_task_if > transactor;
   SC_CTOR(test) {
     SC_THREAD(main);
   }
   void main();
};

class write_constraint : virtual public scv_constraint_base {
public:
   scv_smart_ptr<rw_task_if::write_t> write;
   SCV_CONSTRAINT_CTOR(write_constraint) {
     SCV_CONSTRAINT( write->addr() <= ram_size );
     SCV_CONSTRAINT( write->addr() != write->data() );
   }
};

inline void process(scv_smart_ptr<int> data) {}

inline void test::main() {
   // simple sequential tests
   for (int i=0; i<3; i++) {
     rw_task_if::addr_t addr = i;
     rw_task_if::data_t data = transactor->read(&addr);
     cout << "at time " << sc_time_stamp() << ": ";
     cout << "received data : " << data << endl;
   }

   scv_smart_ptr<rw_task_if::addr_t> addr;
   for (int i=0; i<3; i++) {

     addr->next();
     rw_task_if::data_t data = transactor->read( addr->get_instance() );
     cout << "data for address " << *addr << " is " << data << endl;
   }

   scv_smart_ptr<rw_task_if::write_t> write;
   for (int i=0; i<3; i++) {
     write->next();
     transactor->write( write->get_instance() );
     cout << "send data : " << write->data << endl;
   }

   scv_smart_ptr<int> data;
   scv_bag<int> distribution;
   distribution.push(1,40);
   distribution.push(2,60);
   data->set_mode(distribution);
   for (int i=0;i<3; i++) { data->next(); process(data); }
}

class design : public pipelined_bus_ports {
   list< sc_uint<8> > outstandingAddresses;
   list< bool > outstandingType;
   sc_uint<8>  memory[ram_size];

public:
   SC_HAS_PROCESS(design);
   design(sc_module_name nm) : pipelined_bus_ports(nm) {
     for (unsigned i=0; i<ram_size; ++i) { memory[i] = i; }
     SC_THREAD(addr_phase);
     SC_THREAD(data_phase);
   }
   void addr_phase();
   void data_phase();
};

inline void design::addr_phase() {
   while (1) {
     while (addr_req.read() != 1) {
       wait(addr_req->value_changed_event());
     }
     sc_uint<8> _addr = bus_addr.read();
     bool _rw = rw.read();

     int cycle = rand() % 10 + 1;
     while (cycle-- > 0) {
       wait(clk->posedge_event());
     }

     addr_ack = 1;
     wait(clk->posedge_event());
     addr_ack = 0;

     outstandingAddresses.push_back(_addr);
     outstandingType.push_back(_rw);
     cout << "at time " << sc_time_stamp() << ": ";
     cout << "received request for memory address " << _addr << endl;
   }
}

inline void design::data_phase() {
   while (1) {
     while (outstandingAddresses.empty()) {
       wait(clk->posedge_event());
     }
     int cycle = rand() % 10 + 1;
     while (cycle-- > 0) {
       wait(clk->posedge_event());
     }
     if (outstandingType.front() == 0) {
       cout << "reading memory address " << outstandingAddresses.front()
            << " with value " << memory[outstandingAddresses.front()] << endl;
       bus_data = memory[outstandingAddresses.front()];
       data_rdy = 1;
       wait(clk->posedge_event());
       data_rdy = 0;

     } else {
       cout << "not implemented yet" << endl;
     }
     outstandingAddresses.pop_front();
     outstandingType.pop_front();
   }
}

int sc_main (int argc , char *argv[])
{
   scv_startup();

   scv_tr_text_init();
   scv_tr_db db("my_db");
   scv_tr_db::set_default_db(&db);

   // create signals
   sc_clock clk("clk", 20, SC_NS, 0.5, 0, SC_NS, true);
   sc_signal< bool > rw;
   sc_signal< bool > addr_req;
   sc_signal< bool > addr_ack;
   sc_signal< sc_uint<8> > bus_addr;
   sc_signal< bool > data_rdy;
   sc_signal< sc_uint<8> > bus_data;

   // create modules/channels
   test t("t");
   rw_pipelined_transactor tr("tr");
   design duv("duv");

   // connect them up
   t.transactor(tr);

   tr.clk(clk);
   tr.rw(rw);
   tr.addr_req(addr_req);
   tr.addr_ack(addr_ack);
   tr.bus_addr(bus_addr);
   tr.data_rdy(data_rdy);
   tr.bus_data(bus_data);

   duv.clk(clk);
   duv.rw(rw);
   duv.addr_req(addr_req);
   duv.addr_ack(addr_ack);
   duv.bus_addr(bus_addr);
   duv.data_rdy(data_rdy);
   duv.bus_data(bus_data);

   // run the simulation
   sc_start(1000000, SC_NS);

   return 0;
}
 

It's nothing much. The transactor and the DUV are extended classes of the module and the transactor generates the address and sends it to the DUV and the DUV reads the data from memory with that address. Everything looks fine but when I try to run it i get error:

TB Transaction Recording has started, file = my_db
Transaction Recording is closing file: my_db

Error: (E115) sc_signal<T> cannot have more than one driver: 
 signal `signal_5' (sc_signal)
 first driver `duv.bus_data'  (sc_inout)
 second driver `tr.bus_data' (sc_inout)
In file: ../../../../src/sysc/communication/sc_signal.cpp:73 

I can't see where are multiple drivers when only the DUV sends that signal and the transactor only reads the signal. Even if I delete all of the lines that do anything with this signal it still shows the same error.

 

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Hello,

 

the error message about multiple drivers stems from the usage of sc_inout ports in your pipelined bus module. All inout ports bound to a signal act as a potential driver. You can modify the writer policy governing the check for multiple drivers by appropriately setting the SC_DEFAULT_WRITER_POLICY preprocessor definition to SC_ONE_WRITER (default), SC_MANY_WRITERS, or SC_UNCHECKED_WRITERS consistently in all the translation units of your application. Details for this preprocessor definition can be found in the INSTALL file of the Accellera SystemC 2.3.1 proof-of-concept implementation distribution archive.

 

Regards,

 

Torsten Maehne

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